Re Giorgio approva il New England Restraining Act

Re Giorgio approva il New England Restraining Act


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Sperando di mantenere le colonie del New England dipendenti dagli inglesi, il re Giorgio III approva formalmente il New England Restraining Act il 30 marzo 1775. Il New England Restraining Act richiedeva alle colonie del New England di commerciare esclusivamente con la Gran Bretagna a partire dal 1 luglio. la regola entrerà in vigore il 20 luglio, vietando ai coloni di pescare nel Nord Atlantico.

Il primo ministro britannico, Frederick, Lord North, ha presentato al Parlamento il Restraining Act e la Conciliatory Proposition. La proposta conciliativa prometteva che nessuna colonia che avesse raggiunto la sua quota di difese imperiali e pagato gli stipendi dei funzionari reali di propria iniziativa sarebbe stata tassata. L'atto concedeva alla richiesta dei coloni di poter fornire alla corona i fondi necessari su base volontaria. In altre parole, il Parlamento chiederebbe soldi attraverso le requisizioni, non attraverso le tasse. Il Restraining Act aveva lo scopo di placare gli estremisti parlamentari, che altrimenti avrebbero impedito il passaggio della proposta pacificante.

LEGGI ANCHE: 7 eventi che hanno portato alla rivoluzione americana

Sfortunatamente per il Nord e le prospettive di pace, aveva già inviato l'ordine al generale Thomas Gage di marciare su Concord, nel Massachusetts, per distruggere gli armamenti immagazzinati nella città e prendere in custodia i leader dei patrioti John Hancock e Samuel Adams. Gli ordini furono dati nel gennaio 1775 e arrivarono a Boston prima della Proposta Conciliatoria. Così, il 18 aprile, 700 giubbe rosse marciarono verso Concord Bridge. L'azione militare portò alla guerra rivoluzionaria, alla nascita degli Stati Uniti come nuova nazione, alla temporanea caduta di Lord North e alla quasi abdicazione di re Giorgio III. Il Trattato di Parigi che segnava la fine del conflitto garantiva ai New England il diritto di pescare al largo di Terranova, diritto negato loro dal New England Restraining Act.


Re Giorgio approva il New England Restraining Act - STORIA

Preludio alla Rivoluzione
1763-1775

1763 - Il Proclama del 1763, firmato dal re Giorgio III d'Inghilterra, proibisce qualsiasi insediamento inglese a ovest dei monti Appalachi e richiede a quelli già insediati in quelle regioni di tornare a est nel tentativo di allentare le tensioni con i nativi americani.

1764 - Lo Sugar Act viene approvato dal Parlamento inglese per compensare il debito di guerra causato dalla guerra franco-indiana e per aiutare a pagare le spese di gestione delle colonie e dei territori di nuova acquisizione. Questo atto aumenta i dazi sullo zucchero importato e altri articoli come tessuti, caffè, vini e indaco (colorante). Raddoppia i dazi sulle merci straniere rispedite dall'Inghilterra alle colonie e vieta anche l'importazione di rum e vini francesi stranieri.

1764 - Il Parlamento inglese approva un provvedimento per riorganizzare il sistema doganale americano per far rispettare meglio le leggi commerciali britanniche, che in passato sono state spesso ignorate. Viene istituito un tribunale ad Halifax, in Nuova Scozia, che avrà giurisdizione su tutte le colonie americane in materia commerciale.

1764 - Il Currency Act proibisce ai coloni di emettere carta moneta a corso legale. Questo atto minaccia di destabilizzare l'intera economia coloniale sia del Nord industriale che del Sud agricolo, unendo così i coloni contro di essa.

1764 - A maggio, in una riunione cittadina a Boston, James Otis solleva la questione della tassazione senza rappresentanza e sollecita una risposta unitaria ai recenti atti imposti dall'Inghilterra. A luglio, Otis pubblica "The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved". Ad agosto, i commercianti di Boston iniziano un boicottaggio dei beni di lusso britannici.

1765 - A marzo, il Parlamento inglese approva lo Stamp Act che impone la prima imposta diretta sulle colonie americane, per compensare gli alti costi dell'organizzazione militare britannica in America. Così, per la prima volta nei 150 anni di storia delle colonie britanniche in America, gli americani pagheranno le tasse non alle loro legislature locali in America, ma direttamente all'Inghilterra.

Ai sensi del Stamp Act, tutti i materiali stampati sono tassati, inclusi giornali, opuscoli, fatture, documenti legali, licenze, almanacchi, dadi e carte da gioco. I coloni americani si uniscono rapidamente nell'opposizione, guidati dai segmenti più influenti della società coloniale - avvocati, editori, proprietari terrieri, costruttori di navi e commercianti - che sono i più colpiti dalla legge, che dovrebbe entrare in vigore il 1° novembre.

1765 - Sempre a marzo, il Quartering Act richiede ai coloni di ospitare le truppe britanniche e fornire loro cibo.

1765 - A maggio, in Virginia, Patrick Henry presenta sette risoluzioni della Virginia alla Camera dei cittadini affermando che solo l'assemblea della Virginia può tassare legalmente i residenti della Virginia, dicendo: "Se questo è tradimento, trai il massimo". Sempre a maggio, il viene fondata la prima scuola di medicina d'America, a Filadelfia.

1765 - In luglio, in alcune città coloniali, si forma il Sons of Liberty, un'organizzazione clandestina contraria allo Stamp Act. I suoi membri usano la violenza e l'intimidazione per costringere alla fine tutti gli agenti di francobolli britannici a dimettersi e anche a impedire a molti commercianti americani di ordinare merci commerciali britanniche.

1765 - 26 agosto, una folla a Boston attacca la casa di Thomas Hutchinson, giudice supremo del Massachusetts, mentre Hutchinson e la sua famiglia scappano per un pelo.

1765 - In ottobre, il Congresso dello Stamp Act si riunisce a New York City, con rappresentanti di nove colonie. Il Congresso prepara una risoluzione da inviare al re Giorgio III e al parlamento inglese. La petizione richiede l'abrogazione dello Stamp Act e degli Atti del 1764. La petizione afferma che solo i legislatori coloniali possono tassare i residenti coloniali e che la tassazione senza rappresentanza viola i diritti civili fondamentali dei coloni.

1765 - Il 1 novembre, la maggior parte degli affari quotidiani e delle transazioni legali nelle colonie cessano quando entra in vigore il Stamp Act con quasi tutti i coloni che rifiutano di usare i francobolli. A New York, scoppia la violenza quando una folla brucia il governatore reale in un'effigie, molesta le truppe britanniche e poi saccheggia le case.

1765 - A dicembre, il generale britannico Thomas Gage, comandante di tutte le forze militari inglesi in America, chiede all'assemblea di New York di fare in modo che i coloni rispettino il Quartering Act e ospitino e riforniscano le sue truppe. Sempre a dicembre si diffonde il boicottaggio americano delle importazioni inglesi, poiché oltre 200 commercianti di Boston si uniscono al movimento.

1766 - A gennaio, l'assemblea di New York si rifiuta di soddisfare completamente la richiesta del Gen. Gage di far rispettare il Quartering Act.

1766 - A marzo, re Giorgio III firma un disegno di legge che abroga lo Stamp Act dopo un lungo dibattito nel parlamento inglese, che includeva un'apparizione di Ben Franklin che sosteneva l'abrogazione e avvertiva di una possibile rivoluzione nelle colonie americane se lo Stamp Act fosse applicato da l'esercito britannico.

1766 - Lo stesso giorno in cui ha abrogato lo Stamp Act, il Parlamento inglese approva il Declaratory Act affermando che il governo britannico ha il potere totale di legiferare su qualsiasi legge che regoli le colonie americane in tutti i casi.

1766 - Ad aprile, la notizia dell'abrogazione dello Stamp Act si traduce in celebrazioni nelle colonie e un allentamento del boicottaggio delle merci commerciali inglesi importate.

1766 - Ad agosto, scoppia la violenza a New York tra soldati britannici e coloni armati, tra cui membri dei Sons of Liberty. La violenza esplode a seguito del continuo rifiuto dei coloni di New York di conformarsi al Quartering Act. A dicembre, la legislatura di New York viene sospesa dalla Corona inglese dopo aver votato ancora una volta per rifiutarsi di conformarsi alla legge.

1767 - A giugno, il parlamento inglese approva il Townshend Revenue Acts, imponendo una nuova serie di tasse ai coloni per compensare i costi di amministrazione e protezione delle colonie americane. Gli articoli tassati includono le importazioni come carta, tè, vetro, piombo e vernici. La legge istituisce anche un consiglio coloniale di commissari doganali a Boston. A ottobre, i bostoniani decidono di ripristinare il boicottaggio degli articoli di lusso inglesi.

1768 - A febbraio, Samuel Adams del Massachusetts scrive una lettera circolare contro la tassazione senza rappresentanza e invita i coloni a unirsi nelle loro azioni contro il governo britannico. La lettera viene inviata alle assemblee di tutte le colonie e le istruisce anche sui metodi che il tribunale generale del Massachusetts sta usando per opporsi ai Townshend Acts.

1768 - In aprile, il Segretario di Stato inglese per le colonie, Lord Hillsborough, ordina ai governatori coloniali di impedire alle proprie assemblee di approvare la lettera circolare di Adams. Hillsborough ordina inoltre al governatore del Massachusetts di sciogliere il tribunale generale se l'assemblea del Massachusetts non revoca la lettera. Alla fine del mese, le assemblee di New Hampshire, Connecticut e New Jersey hanno approvato la lettera.

1768 - A maggio, una nave da guerra britannica armata di 50 cannoni entra nel porto di Boston dopo una richiesta di aiuto da parte dei commissari doganali che sono costantemente molestati dagli agitatori di Boston. A giugno, un doganiere viene rinchiuso nella cabina del Liberty, uno sloop di proprietà di John Hancock. Il vino importato viene quindi scaricato illegalmente a Boston senza pagamento di dazi. A seguito di questo incidente, i funzionari doganali sequestrano lo sloop di Hancock. Dopo le minacce di violenza da parte dei bostoniani, i doganieri scappano su un'isola al largo di Boston, quindi chiedono l'intervento delle truppe britanniche.

1768 - A luglio, il governatore del Massachusetts scioglie il tribunale generale dopo che il legislatore ha sfidato il suo ordine di revocare la lettera circolare di Adams. Ad agosto, a Boston e New York, i commercianti accettano di boicottare la maggior parte delle merci britanniche fino all'abrogazione dei Townshend Acts. A settembre, in una riunione cittadina a Boston, i residenti sono invitati ad armarsi. Più tardi, a settembre, navi da guerra inglesi salpano nel porto di Boston, quindi due reggimenti di fanteria inglese sbarcano a Boston e stabiliscono una residenza permanente per mantenere l'ordine.

1769 - A marzo, i mercanti di Filadelfia si uniscono al boicottaggio dei beni commerciali britannici. A maggio, una serie di risoluzioni scritte da George Mason viene presentata da George Washington alla Virginia House of Burgesses. I Virginia Resolves si oppongono alla tassazione senza rappresentanza, all'opposizione britannica alle lettere circolari e ai piani britannici di inviare possibilmente agitatori americani in Inghilterra per essere processati. Dieci giorni dopo, il governatore reale della Virginia scioglie il Casato dei Burgesses. Tuttavia, i suoi membri si incontrano il giorno successivo in una taverna di Williamsburg e accettano un boicottaggio dei beni commerciali britannici, articoli di lusso e schiavi.

1769 - A luglio, nel territorio della California, viene fondata San Diego dal frate francescano Juniper Serra. In ottobre, il boicottaggio delle merci inglesi si diffonde nel New Jersey, nel Rhode Island e poi nella Carolina del Nord.

1770 - La popolazione delle colonie americane raggiunge 2.210.000 persone.

1770 - A gennaio scoppia la violenza tra i membri dei Sons of Liberty a New York e 40 soldati britannici per l'affissione di giornali da parte degli inglesi. Diversi uomini sono gravemente feriti.

5 marzo 1770 - Il massacro di Boston si verifica quando una folla molesta i soldati britannici che poi sparano a bruciapelo con i loro moschetti sulla folla, uccidendone tre all'istante, ferendone mortalmente altri due e ferendone sei. Dopo l'incidente, il nuovo governatore reale del Massachusetts, Thomas Hutchinson, su insistenza di Sam Adams, ritira le truppe britanniche da Boston nelle vicine isole portuali. Il capitano dei soldati britannici, Thomas Preston, viene quindi arrestato insieme a otto dei suoi uomini e accusato di omicidio.

1770 - Ad aprile, gli inglesi abrogano i Townshend Acts. Tutti i dazi sulle importazioni nelle colonie sono eliminati ad eccezione del tè. Inoltre, il Quartering Act non viene rinnovato.

1770 - In ottobre inizia il processo per i soldati britannici arrestati dopo il massacro di Boston. Gli avvocati coloniali John Adams e Josiah Quincy difendono con successo il capitano Preston e sei dei suoi uomini, che vengono assolti. Altri due soldati vengono giudicati colpevoli di omicidio colposo, marchiati a fuoco e poi rilasciati.

1772 - A giugno, una goletta doganale britannica, la Gaspee, si arena al largo del Rhode Island nella baia di Narragansett. I coloni di Providence remano verso la goletta e la attaccano, mettono a terra l'equipaggio britannico, quindi bruciano la nave. A settembre, una ricompensa di 500 sterline viene offerta dalla Corona inglese per la cattura di quei coloni, che sarebbero poi stati inviati in Inghilterra per essere processati. L'annuncio che sarebbero stati inviati in Inghilterra sconvolge ulteriormente molti coloni americani.

1772 - A novembre, si riunisce una riunione cittadina di Boston, convocata da Sam Adams. Durante l'incontro viene nominato un comitato di corrispondenza di 21 membri per comunicare con altre città e colonie. Poche settimane dopo, l'assemblea cittadina avalla tre proclami radicali che affermano i diritti delle colonie all'autogoverno.

1773 - A marzo, la Virginia House of Burgesses nomina un comitato di corrispondenza di undici membri per comunicare con le altre colonie in merito a comuni lamentele contro gli inglesi. I membri di quel comitato includono Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry e Richard Henry Lee. La Virginia è seguita pochi mesi dopo da New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut e South Carolina.

1773 - 10 maggio, entra in vigore la legge sul tè. Mantiene una tassa di importazione di tre penny per libbra sul tè che arriva nelle colonie, che era già in vigore da sei anni. Dà anche alla quasi bancarotta British East India Company un monopolio virtuale del tè consentendole di vendere direttamente agli agenti coloniali, aggirando qualsiasi intermediario, svendendo così i mercanti americani. La Compagnia delle Indie Orientali aveva fatto pressioni con successo sul Parlamento per una tale misura. A settembre, il Parlamento autorizza l'azienda a spedire mezzo milione di libbre di tè a un gruppo di agenti scelti.

1773 - In ottobre, i coloni tengono un'assemblea di massa a Filadelfia contro la tassa sul tè e il monopolio della Compagnia delle Indie Orientali. Un comitato costringe quindi gli agenti del tè britannici a dimettersi dalle loro posizioni. A novembre, a Boston, si tiene un'assemblea cittadina a sostegno delle azioni intraprese dai coloni di Filadelfia. I bostoniani cercano quindi, ma falliscono, di convincere i loro agenti del tè britannici a dimettersi. Poche settimane dopo, tre navi che trasportano il tè salpano nel porto di Boston.

1773 - 29/30 novembre, a Boston si tengono due riunioni di massa su cosa fare per il tè a bordo delle tre navi ora attraccate nel porto di Boston. I coloni decidono di inviare il tè sulla nave, Dartmouth, in Inghilterra senza pagare alcun dazio all'importazione. Il governatore reale del Massachusetts, Hutchinson, si oppone a questo e ordina ai funzionari del porto di non far salpare la nave dal porto a meno che non siano state pagate le tasse sul tè.

16 dicembre 1773 - Circa 8000 bostoniani si riuniscono per ascoltare Sam Adams dire loro che il governatore reale Hutchinson ha ripetuto il suo comando di non consentire alle navi di uscire dal porto fino a quando non saranno state pagate le tasse sul tè. Quella notte, il Boston Tea Party si verifica mentre gli attivisti coloniali si travestono da indiani Mohawk, quindi si imbarcano sulle navi e scaricano tutti i 342 contenitori di tè nel porto.

1774 - A marzo, un arrabbiato parlamento inglese approva il primo di una serie di atti coercitivi (chiamati atti intollerabili dagli americani) in risposta alla ribellione in Massachusetts. Il Boston Port Bill di fatto interrompe tutte le spedizioni commerciali nel porto di Boston fino a quando il Massachusetts non paga le tasse dovute sul tè scaricato nel porto e rimborsa anche la Compagnia delle Indie Orientali per la perdita del tè.

1774 - 12 maggio, i bostoniani in una riunione cittadina chiedono il boicottaggio delle importazioni britanniche in risposta al Boston Port Bill. Il 13 maggio, il generale Thomas Gage, comandante di tutte le forze militari britanniche nelle colonie, arriva a Boston e sostituisce Hutchinson come governatore reale, ponendo il Massachusetts sotto il dominio militare. È seguito dall'arrivo di quattro reggimenti di truppe britanniche.

1774 - 17-23 maggio, i coloni di Providence, New York e Filadelfia iniziano a chiedere un congresso intercoloniale per superare gli atti coercitivi e discutere una linea di condotta comune contro gli inglesi.

1774 - 20 maggio, il parlamento inglese emana la prossima serie di atti coercitivi, che includono il Massachusetts Regulating Act e il Government Act che pongono virtualmente fine a qualsiasi autogoverno da parte dei coloni. Invece, la Corona inglese e il governatore reale assumono il potere politico precedentemente esercitato dai coloni. Ha anche promulgato l'Administration of Justice Act che protegge i funzionari reali del Massachusetts dall'essere citati in giudizio nei tribunali coloniali e il Quebec Act che istituisce un governo centralizzato in Canada controllato dalla Corona e dal Parlamento inglese. Il Quebec Act sconvolge notevolmente i coloni americani estendendo il confine meridionale del Canada nei territori rivendicati da Massachusetts, Connecticut e Virginia.

1774 - A giugno, una nuova versione del Quartering Act del 1765 viene promulgata dal Parlamento inglese che richiede a tutte le colonie americane di fornire alloggi per le truppe britanniche in case e taverne occupate e in edifici non occupati. A settembre, il governatore del Massachusetts Gage sequestra l'arsenale di armi di quella colonia a Charlestown.

1774 - Dal 5 settembre al 26 ottobre, il Primo Congresso Continentale si riunisce a Filadelfia con 56 delegati, in rappresentanza di ogni colonia, tranne la Georgia. Gli assistenti includono Patrick Henry, George Washington, Sam Adams e John Hancock.

Il 17 settembre, il Congresso dichiara la sua opposizione agli Atti coercitivi, dicendo che "non devono essere obbediti", e promuove anche la formazione di unità di milizia locale. Il 14 ottobre viene adottata una Dichiarazione e risoluzioni che si oppone agli Atti coercitivi, al Quebec Act e ad altre misure adottate dai britannici che minano l'autogoverno. Vengono affermati i diritti dei coloni, inclusi i diritti alla "vita, alla libertà e alla proprietà". Il 20 ottobre il Congresso adotta l'Associazione continentale in cui i delegati accettano il boicottaggio delle importazioni inglesi, effettuano un embargo delle esportazioni verso la Gran Bretagna e sospende la tratta degli schiavi.

1775 - 1 febbraio, a Cambridge, Massachusetts, si tiene un congresso provinciale durante il quale John Hancock e Joseph Warren iniziano i preparativi difensivi per lo stato di guerra. Il 9 febbraio il parlamento inglese dichiara il Massachusetts in stato di ribellione. Il 23 marzo, in Virginia, Patrick Henry pronuncia un discorso contro il dominio britannico, affermando: "Dammi la libertà o dammi la morte!" 30 marzo, il New England Restraining Act è approvato dal re Giorgio III, che richiede alle colonie del New England di commerciare esclusivamente con l'Inghilterra e vieta anche la pesca nel Nord Atlantico.

1775 - In aprile, il governatore del Massachusetts Gage riceve l'ordine di far rispettare gli atti coercitivi e sopprimere la "ribellione aperta" tra i coloni con tutta la forza necessaria.

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Contenuti

Sulla scia del Boston Tea Party, il governo britannico ha istituito i Coercive Acts, chiamati Intolerable Acts nelle colonie. [1] C'erano cinque leggi all'interno degli Intolerable Acts, il Boston Port Act, il Massachusetts Government Act, l'Administration of Justice Act, il Quartering Act e il Quebec Act. [1] Questi atti impongono una legislazione più severa sulle colonie, specialmente in Massachusetts, modificano il sistema giudiziario nelle colonie, obbligano i coloni a provvedere allo squartamento delle truppe britanniche permanenti e ampliano i confini del Quebec. [1] Le colonie si infuriarono per l'attuazione di queste leggi poiché ritenevano che limitasse i loro diritti e le loro libertà. I delegati indignati delle colonie si unirono per condividere le loro lamentele nel Primo Congresso Continentale nella Carpenters' Hall di Filadelfia il 5 settembre 1774 per determinare se le colonie dovessero o fossero interessate ad agire contro gli inglesi. [1] [2] Tutte le colonie, tranne la Georgia, inviarono delegati a questa conferenza. [3] Il primo congresso continentale ha prodotto cinque risoluzioni, una delle quali era la dichiarazione e le risoluzioni del primo congresso continentale: [4]

Dalla fine dell'ultima guerra, il parlamento britannico, rivendicando un potere, di diritto, di vincolare il popolo d'America da statuti in tutti i casi, ha, in alcuni atti, imposto loro espressamente tasse, e in altri, sotto vari presenze, ma di fatto allo scopo di elevare un reddito, ha imposto aliquote e dazi dovuti in queste colonie, istituito un collegio di commissari, con poteri incostituzionali, ed esteso la giurisdizione dei tribunali dell'ammiragliato, non solo per la riscossione di detti dazi, ma per il giudizio di cause meramente sorte all'interno del corpo di una contea: in conseguenza di altri statuti, i giudici, che prima avevano solo proprietà a volontà nei loro uffici, sono stati resi dipendenti dalla corona solo per i loro stipendi, e gli eserciti permanenti tenuti in tempo di pace: è stato recentemente deciso in parlamento, che in forza di uno statuto, fatto nel trentacinquesimo anno del regno di re Enrico Ottavo, i coloni possono essere trasportati in Inghilterra, e lì processati con l'accusa zioni per tradimenti e delitti, o occultamento di tradimenti commessi nelle colonie, e da uno statuto tardivo, tali processi sono stati diretti nei casi ivi menzionati: Nell'ultima sessione del parlamento, sono stati fatti tre statuti uno intitolato: "Un atto per interrompere , nel modo e per il tempo ivi menzionato, lo sbarco e lo scarico, il carico o il trasporto di merci, merci e merci, nella città e all'interno del porto di Boston, nella provincia di Massachusetts-Bay nel New England - un altro intitolato "Un atto per una migliore regolamentazione del governo della provincia di Massachusetts-Bay nel New England - e un altro intitolato "Un atto per l'amministrazione imparziale della giustizia, nei casi di persone interrogate per qualsiasi atto da loro compiuto nell'esecuzione della legge, o per la repressione di sommosse e tumulti, nella provincia del Massachusetts-Bay nel New England - e fu poi emanato un altro statuto, "per provvedere in modo più efficace al governo del provincia del Quebec, ecc. - Tutti gli statuti sono impolitici, ingiusti e crudeli, nonché incostituzionali e i più pericolosi e distruttivi dei diritti americani: le assemblee sono state spesso sciolte, contrariamente ai diritti del popolo, quando hanno tentato di deliberate sulle rimostranze e le loro doverose, umili, leali e ragionevoli richieste di riparazione alla corona, sono state ripetutamente trattate con disprezzo dai ministri di stato di Sua Maestà: La brava gente delle diverse colonie del New-Hampshire, Massachusetts-Bay, Rhode Island e Providence Plantations, Connecticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Newcastle, Kent e Sussex su Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North-Carolina e South-Carolina, giustamente allarmati da questi arbitrari procedimenti del parlamento e dell'amministrazione, hanno eletto, costituito e nominato separatamente deputati per riunirsi e sedere al Congresso generale, nella città di Filadelfia, al fine di ottenere tale istituzione, come che la loro religione, le leggi, un d libertà, non possono essere sovvertiti: per cui i deputati così nominati essendo ora riuniti, in una piena e libera rappresentanza di queste colonie, tenendo nella loro più seria considerazione, i mezzi migliori per raggiungere i fini suddetti, in primo luogo, come inglesi, i loro antenati in casi simili hanno di solito fatto, per affermare e rivendicare i loro diritti e libertà, DICHIARANO che gli abitanti delle colonie inglesi in Nord America, per le immutabili leggi della natura, i principi della costituzione inglese e le diverse carte o patti, hanno i seguenti DIRITTI:

Risolto, N. C. D. 1. Che hanno diritto alla vita, alla libertà e alla proprietà, e non hanno mai ceduto a nessun potere sovrano il diritto di disporre di entrambi senza il loro consenso.

Risolto, N.C.D. 2. Che i nostri antenati, che per primi stabilirono queste colonie, erano al momento della loro emigrazione dalla madrepatria, titolari di tutti i diritti, le libertà e le immunità dei sudditi liberi e naturali, all'interno del regno d'Inghilterra.

Risolto, N.C.D. 3. Che con tale emigrazione non hanno in alcun modo perso, ceduto o perso nessuno di quei diritti, ma che erano, e i loro discendenti ora hanno diritto all'esercizio e al godimento di tutti questi, come le loro circostanze locali e di altro tipo consentono loro fare esercizio e divertirsi.

Queste risoluzioni riguardano lo status dei coloni come cittadini britannici dopo la loro emigrazione da vari paesi europei. Fin dai primi insediamenti, sia in virtù delle leggi locali che della successiva legge imperiale, i coloni stranieri avevano diritto e ricevevano uguali diritti con altri sudditi britannici nativi, e questo trattamento equo dovrebbe essere continuato. Questo è in riferimento alla cessazione dei loro diritti ai sensi del Plantation Act 1740 nel dicembre 1773, all'incirca nello stesso periodo del Boston Tea Party e prima dell'approvazione degli Intolerable Acts. I coloni consideravano questo un limite alla loro libertà, alla loro capacità di crescere e che li collocava a un livello politico e sociale inferiore rispetto ai cittadini britannici. Come nel caso, questa decisione suggerisce in modo controverso che le interpretazioni coloniali dei loro diritti erano state violate per molti anni, così come più recentemente prima dell'apertura del Congresso continentale.

Risolto, 4. Che il fondamento della libertà inglese, e di ogni governo libero, è un diritto del popolo a partecipare al suo consiglio legislativo: e poiché i coloni inglesi non sono rappresentati, e dalle loro circostanze locali e di altro tipo, non possono essere rappresentati adeguatamente nel governo britannico parlamento, hanno diritto ad un potere legislativo libero ed esclusivo nelle loro diverse legislazioni provinciali, dove il loro diritto di rappresentanza può essere preservato solo come è stato usato e consueto finora: ma, per la necessità del caso, e per il reciproco interesse di entrambi i paesi, acconsentiamo allegramente all'attuazione di tali atti del parlamento britannico, come sono bonfide, trattenuto dal regolamento del nostro commercio estero, allo scopo di assicurare i vantaggi commerciali di tutto l'impero alla madrepatria, e i benefici commerciali del suo rispettivo membro ers escludendo ogni idea di tassazione interna o esterna, per aumentare un reddito sui sudditi, in America, senza il loro consenso. [5]

I coloni non avevano una rappresentanza diretta nel parlamento britannico e ritenevano che il governo non potesse imporre tasse sui coloni a meno che non avessero rappresentanti nel governo. [6] I coloni non volevano che venissero loro imposte tasse per raccogliere fondi per il governo britannico quando non avevano voce in capitolo nella legislatura di tali tasse. [6] In realtà, gli inglesi stavano applicando queste tasse per aumentare le entrate che avevano perso nella guerra franco-indiana, così come le colonie sottomettevano mentre gli inglesi sentivano che la loro lealtà stava vacillando. [7] Lo slogan dei coloni per questo numero era "Nessuna tassazione senza rappresentanza" [6] È in discussione chi è l'individuo che ha coniato questa espressione. Diverse fonti dicono che fosse Patrick Henry nel 1750, mentre un altro dice che fosse Jonathan Mayhew (anch'esso nel 1750) [6]

Risolto, N.C.D. 5. Che le rispettive colonie hanno diritto alla common law d'Inghilterra, e più specialmente al grande ed inestimabile privilegio di essere processate dai loro pari del vicinato, secondo il corso di quella legge.

Nell'Administration of Justice Act è stato stabilito che i coloni dovevano essere processati nei tribunali britannici per crimini e che i soldati britannici accusati di crimini potevano essere processati nei tribunali britannici. [8] I coloni chiamarono questo "atto di omicidio" perché ritenevano che i soldati potessero farla franca fuggendo quando avrebbero dovuto andare in Gran Bretagna per essere processati. [8] Questa risoluzione sta raffigurando la richiesta dei coloni di essere processati nei propri tribunali per i crimini commessi nelle colonie.

Risolto, N.C.D. 6. Che hanno diritto al beneficio di tale degli statuti inglesi, come esisteva al momento della loro colonizzazione e che, per esperienza, hanno trovato rispettivamente applicabile alle loro diverse circostanze locali e di altro tipo.

Risolto, N.C.D. 7. Che queste, colonie di Sua Maestà, hanno parimenti diritto a tutte le immunità e privilegi concessi e confermati loro da statuti reali, o garantiti dai loro diversi codici di leggi provinciali.

Queste risoluzioni affermano che i coloni hanno diritto ai diritti stabiliti negli statuti della loro colonia individuale e lo sono stati sin dalla colonizzazione. Questo è importante per i diritti coloniali in quanto si lega alla questione dei diritti legislativi coloniali, rispetto ai diritti del monarca sulle colonie. Questo documento afferma che i diritti coloniali non possono essere modificati troppo, poiché la carta coloniale deve essere rispettata.

Risolto, N.C.D. 8. Che hanno il diritto di riunirsi pacificamente, prendere in considerazione le loro rimostranze e presentare petizioni al re e che tutte le azioni giudiziarie, i proclami proibitivi e gli impegni per le stesse sono illegali.

Lo scopo di questa risoluzione è di allentare la tensione e le colonie assicurandosi che abbiano il diritto di riunirsi e presentare petizioni al re, nelle forme di comitati di corrispondenza. [9] Nel periodo tra il 1772 e il 1774 furono formati comitati di corrispondenza come modo per i coloni e i leader coloniali di esprimere le loro rimostranze nei confronti del re. [9]

Risolto, N.C.D. 9. Che mantenere un esercito permanente in queste colonie, in tempo di pace, senza il consenso del legislatore di quella colonia, in cui tale esercito è tenuto, è contro la legge.

La risoluzione di cui sopra è stata inclusa nella Dichiarazione e risoluzioni del Primo Congresso continentale poiché gli inglesi avevano posto un esercito permanente nel Massachusetts nel 1768. I coloni erano arrabbiati perché queste truppe dovevano essere acquartierate nelle loro case, nutrite con il loro cibo e mostravano una sfacciata sfiducia dalla Gran Bretagna e un maggiore controllo nelle colonie.

Risolto, N.C.D. 10. È indispensabile al buon governo, e reso essenziale dalla costituzione inglese, che i rami costituenti della legislatura siano indipendenti l'uno dall'altro che, quindi, l'esercizio del potere legislativo in diverse colonie, da un consiglio nominato, a piacere, da la corona, è incostituzionale, pericoloso e distruttivo per la libertà della legislazione americana.

Tutti e ciascuno dei quali i suddetti deputati, in nome di se stessi e dei loro elettori, rivendicano, esigono e insistono, come loro indubbi diritti e libertà, che non possono essere loro legalmente sottratti, alterati o ridotti da alcun potere, senza il loro consenso, dai loro rappresentanti nelle varie legislazioni provinciali.

In the course of our inquiry, we find many infringements and violations of the foregoing rights, which, from an ardent desire, that harmony and mutual intercourse of affection and interest may be restored, we pass over for the present, and proceed to state such acts and measures as have been adopted since the last war, which demonstrate a system formed to enslave America.

This resolve was created to demand and proclaim that colonial legislatures shouldn’t be controlled by a council appointed by the crown, but rather by colonists and leaders of their own choosing. The addition of this resolve is further demanding colonial independence by placing additional control in the hands of the colonial government.

Resolved, N.C.D. 11. That the following acts of parliament are infringements and violations of the rights of the colonists and that the repeal of them is essentially necessary, in order to restore harmony between Great Britain and the American colonies, viz.

The several Acts of 4 George III. cap. 15, and ch. 34. 5 George III. cap. 25. 6 George III. cap. 52. 7 George III. cap. 41, and ch. 46. 8 George III. cap. 22, which impose duties for the purpose of raising a revenue in America, extend the power of the admiralty courts beyond their ancient limits, deprive the American subject of trial by jury, authorize the judges certificate to indemnify the prosecutor from damages, that he might otherwise be liable to, requiring oppressive security from a claimant of ships and goods seized, before he shall be allowed to defend his property, and are subversive of American rights.

Also 12 Geo. III. cap. 24, intituled, "An act for the better securing his majesty's dockyards, magazines, ships, ammunition, and stores," which declares a new offence in America, and deprives the American subject of a constitutional trial by jury of the vicinage, by authorizing the trial of any person, charged with the committing any offence described in the said act, out of the realm, to be indicted and tried for the same in any shire or county within the realm.

Also the three acts passed in the last session of parliament, for stopping the port and blocking up the harbour of Boston, for altering the charter and government of Massachusetts-Bay, and that which is entitled, "An act for the better administration of justice, etc."

Also the act passed in the same session for establishing the Roman Catholic religion, in the province of Quebec, abolishing the equitable system of English laws, and erecting a tyranny there, to the great danger (from so total a dissimilarity of religion, law and government) of the neighboring British colonies, by the assistance of whose blood and treasure the said country was conquered from France.

Also the act passed in the same session, for the better providing suitable quarters for officers and soldiers in his majesty's service, in North-America.

Also, that the keeping a standing army in several of these colonies, in time of peace, without the consent of the legislature of that colony, in which such army is kept, is against law.

The final resolve in this document refers to all of the intolerable acts, and states that under the Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress, they are prohibited and illegal. The anger over the Intolerable Acts was no secret to the British government, and the issue of taxation without representation was voiced loudly, however this resolve questions the authority of the monarch's and parliament's rule in the colonies.

At this time in history the colonies were perceptibly unhappy with the British monarch and parliament. [10] Despite the palpable tensions that existed between the groups, King George did not waver or give in to colonial demands. He meant to maintain political unity between the colonies and the United Kingdom even at the expense of the happiness of the colonists. [10] King George famously said to the Prime Minister Lord North "The die is now cast, the colonies must either submit or triumph." [10] This sentiment continued after the publication of the Declarations and Resolves of the First Continental Congress, as he would not negotiate with them. [10]

Reacting to the Declaration, Samuel Johnson published a pamphlet called Taxation No Tyranny, questioning the colonists' right to self-government and asking "How is it that we hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the drivers of negroes?" [11] [12]

The Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress served many purposes. Among those who supported achieving full autonomy from Britain, it served to rouse their spirits together towards gaining independence. [10] For those who were on the fence about supporting or opposing American independence, this document, which outlined all the wrongdoings of the King, could turn their support against the King. [10] In addition, before this document was released the goal of the Continental Congress was to discuss grievances, however after the publication American opinion turned from wanting respect and recognition from the crown, to wanting to become separate from the mother country. Not all Americans felt this way, there were many loyalists who wanted to remain a part of the empire of Great Britain especially in the South, but the public opinion was turning.


King George endorses New England Restraining Act - Mar 30, 1775 - HISTORY.com

TSgt Joe C.

Hoping to keep the New England colonies dependent on the British, King George III formally endorses the New England Restraining Act on this day in 1775. The New England Restraining Act required New England colonies to trade exclusively with Great Britain as of July 1. An additional rule would come into effect on July 20, banning colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic.

The British prime minister, Frederick, Lord North, introduced the Restraining Act and the Conciliatory Proposition to Parliament on the same day. The Conciliatory Proposition promised that no colony that met its share of imperial defenses and paid royal officials’ salaries of their own accord would be taxed. The act conceded to the colonists’ demand that they be allowed to provide the crown with needed funds on a voluntary basis. In other words, Parliament would ask for money through requisitions, not demand it through taxes. The Restraining Act was meant to appease Parliamentary hardliners, who would otherwise have impeded passage of the pacifying proposition.

Unfortunately for North and prospects for peace, he had already sent General Thomas Gage orders to march on Concord, Massachusetts, to destroy the armaments stockpiled in the town, and take Patriot leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams into custody. The orders were given in January 1775 and arrived in Boston before the Conciliatory Proposition. Thus, on April 18, 700 Redcoats marched towards Concord Bridge. The military action led to the Revolutionary War, the birth of the United States as a new nation, the temporary downfall of Lord North and the near abdication of King George III. The Treaty of Paris marking the conflict’s end guaranteed New Englanders the right to fish off Newfoundland–the right denied them by the New England Restraining Act.


1775 King George endorses New England Restraining Act

Hoping to keep the New England colonies dependent on the British, King George III formally endorses the New England Restraining Act on this day in 1775. The New England Restraining Act required New England colonies to trade exclusively with Great Britain as of July 1. An additional rule would come into effect on July 20, banning colonists from fishing in the North Atlantic.

The British prime minister, Frederick, Lord North, introduced the Restraining Act and the Conciliatory Proposition to Parliament on the same day. The Conciliatory Proposition promised that no colony that met its share of imperial defenses and paid royal officials&rsquo salaries of their own accord would be taxed. The act conceded to the colonists&rsquo demand that they be allowed to provide the crown with needed funds on a voluntary basis. In other words, Parliament would ask for money through requisitions, not demand it through taxes. The Restraining Act was meant to appease Parliamentary hardliners, who would otherwise have impeded passage of the pacifying proposition.

Unfortunately for North and prospects for peace, he had already sent General Thomas Gage orders to march on Concord, Massachusetts, to destroy the armaments stockpiled in the town, and take Patriot leaders John Hancock and Samuel Adams into custody. The orders were given in January 1775 and arrived in Boston before the Conciliatory Proposition. Thus, on April 18, 700 Redcoats marched towards Concord Bridge. The military action led to the Revolutionary War, the birth of the United States as a new nation, the temporary downfall of Lord North and the near abdication of King George III. The Treaty of Paris marking the conflict&rsquos end guaranteed New Englanders the right to fish off Newfoundland&ndashthe right denied them by the New England Restraining Act.


King George endorses New England Restraining Act - HISTORY

The Tea Act of 1773 arose from the financial problems of the British East India Company and the dispute of Parliament’s authority over the colonies.

Obiettivi formativi

Examine the economic motivation behind enforcing the Tea Act

Key Takeaways

Punti chiave

  • The Tea Act of 1773, and the subsequent Boston Tea Party, arose from two issues confronting the British Empire in 1775.
  • The first issue was the financial problems of the British East India Company, one of Britain’s most important commercial institutions, which by late 1772, was in a serious financial crisis as a result of declining sales and increased taxes.
  • The second contributing issue was an ongoing dispute about the extent of Parliament ‘s authority, if any, over the British American colonies without seating any elected representation.
  • Parliament attempted to resolve these issues through the Tea Act, which in turn set the stage for the Boston Tea Party and eventually the American Revolution.
  • The Tea Act retained the three pence duty on tea imported to the colonies. Some members of Parliament wanted to eliminate this tax, arguing that there was no reason to provoke another colonial controversy.

Key Terms

  • Boston Tea Party: A political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Massachusetts against the British government and the monopolistic East India Company that controlled an element of trade in the colonies.

Panoramica

The Tea Act of 1773, and the subsequent Boston Tea Party, arose from two issues confronting the British Empire in 1775: first, the financial problems of the British East India Company, and second, an ongoing dispute about the extent of Parliament’s authority, if any, over the British American colonies without seating any elected representation. Parliament attempted to resolve these issues through the Tea Act, which in turn set the stage for the Boston Tea Party and eventually the American Revolution.

Background: Tea Trade to 1767

As Europeans developed a taste for tea in the 17th century, rival companies were formed to import the product from China. In England, Parliament gave the East India Company a monopoly on the importation of tea in 1698. When tea became popular in the British colonies, Parliament sought to eliminate foreign competition by passing an act in 1721 that required colonists to import their tea only from Great Britain. The East India Company did not export tea to the colonies by law, the company was required to sell its tea wholesale at auctions in England. British firms bought this tea and exported it to the colonies, where they resold it to merchants in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston. Until 1767, the East India Company paid a tax of about 25% on tea that it imported into Great Britain. Parliament laid additional taxes on tea sold for consumption in Britain.

In response to the colonial protests over the Townshend Acts, Parliament repealed the majority of the Townshend taxes in 1770. However, they did not repeal the duty on tea, which Prime Minister Lord North kept in order to assert Britain’s right of taxing the colonies. This partial repeal of the taxes was enough to bring an end to the non-importation movement, which colonists were using to boycott British goods, by October 1770. From 1771 to 1773, British tea was once again imported into the colonies in significant amounts, with merchants paying the Townshend duty of three pence per pound. Boston was the largest colonial importer of legal tea smugglers still dominated the market in New York and Philadelphia.

The Tea Act of 1773

The Indemnity Act of 1767, which gave the East India Company a refund of the duty on tea that was re-exported to the colonies, expired in 1772. Parliament passed a new act in 1772 that reduced this refund, effectively leaving a 10% duty on tea imported into Britain. The act also restored the tea taxes within Britain that had been repealed in 1767, and left in place the Townshend duty in the colonies. With this new tax burden driving up the price of British tea, sales plummeted. The company continued to import tea into Great Britain, however, amassing a huge surplus of product that no one would buy. For these and other reasons, by late 1772, the East India Company, one of Britain’s most important commercial institutions, was in a serious financial crisis.

Eliminating some of the taxes was one obvious solution to the crisis. The East India Company initially sought to have the Townshend duty repealed, but the North ministry was unwilling because such an action might be interpreted as a retreat from Parliament’s position that it had the right to tax the colonies. More importantly, the tax collected from the Townshend duty was used to pay the salaries of some British colonial governors and judges. Another possible solution for reducing the growing mound of tea in the East India Company warehouses was to sell it cheaply in Europe. This possibility was investigated, but it was determined that the tea would simply be smuggled back into Great Britain, where it would undersell the taxed product.

The North ministry’s solution was the Tea Act, which received the assent of King George in May of 1773. This act restored the East India Company’s full refund on the duty for importing tea into Britain and also permitted the company, for the first time, to export tea to the colonies on its own account. This would allow the company to reduce costs by eliminating the middlemen who bought the tea at wholesale auctions in London. Instead of selling to middlemen, the company now appointed colonial merchants to receive the tea on consignment the consignees would in turn sell the tea for a commission. In July of 1773, tea consignees were selected in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, and Charleston.

The Tea Act retained the three pence Townshend duty on tea imported to the colonies. Some members of Parliament wanted to eliminate this tax, arguing that there was no reason to provoke another colonial controversy. However, North did not want to give up the revenue from the Townshend tax, primarily because it was used to pay the salaries of colonial officials maintaining the right of taxing the Americans was a secondary concern.

Signore del Nord: Lord North, seen here in Portrait of Frederick North, Lord North (1773–1774), painted by Nathaniel Dance, was prime minister at the time of the passage of the Tea Act.


Contenuti

George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square. He was the grandson of King George II, and the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and Augusta of Saxe-Gotha. As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, who was both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. [4] [5] One month later, he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker. His godparents were King Frederick I of Sweden (for whom Lord Baltimore stood proxy), his uncle Frederick III, Duke of Saxe-Gotha (for whom Lord Carnarvon stood proxy), and his great-aunt Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia (for whom Lady Charlotte Edwin stood proxy). [6]

Prince George grew into a healthy, reserved and shy child. The family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight. [7] He was the first British monarch to study science systematically. [8]

Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, mathematics, French, Latin, history, music, geography, commerce, agriculture and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing, fencing, and riding. His religious education was wholly Anglican. [8] At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Catone and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in Inghilterra born, in England bred." [9] Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". [10]

King George II disliked the Prince of Wales and took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, and his son George became heir apparent to the throne and inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks later the King created George Prince of Wales. [11] [12]

In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would later serve as Prime Minister. [13] George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values. [14] [15]

In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and consequently must often act contrary to my passions." [16] Nevertheless, attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother [17] Sophie married Frederick, Margrave of Bayreuth, instead. [18]

The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died suddenly on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday. The search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Duchess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. [d] A fortnight later on 22 September, both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress (in contrast with his grandfather and his sons), and the couple enjoyed a happy marriage until his mental illness struck. [1] [9]

They had 15 children—nine sons and six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House (on the site now occupied by Buckingham Palace) for use as a family retreat. [20] His other residences were Kew Palace and Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for official use. He did not travel extensively and spent his entire life in southern England. In the 1790s, the King and his family took holidays at Weymouth, Dorset, [21] which he thus popularised as one of the first seaside resorts in England. [22]

George, in his accession speech to Parliament, proclaimed: "Born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Britain." [23] He inserted this phrase into the speech, written by Lord Hardwicke, to demonstrate his desire to distance himself from his German forebears, who were perceived as caring more for Hanover than for Britain. [24]

Although his accession was at first welcomed by politicians of all parties, [e] the first years of his reign were marked by political instability, largely generated as a result of disagreements over the Seven Years' War. [26] George was also perceived as favouring Tory ministers, which led to his denunciation by the Whigs as an autocrat. [1] On his accession, the Crown lands produced relatively little income most revenue was generated through taxes and excise duties. George surrendered the Crown Estate to Parliamentary control in return for a civil list annuity for the support of his household and the expenses of civil government. [27]

Claims that he used the income to reward supporters with bribes and gifts [28] are disputed by historians who say such claims "rest on nothing but falsehoods put out by disgruntled opposition". [29] Debts amounting to over £3 million over the course of George's reign were paid by Parliament, and the civil list annuity was increased from time to time. [30] He aided the Royal Academy of Arts with large grants from his private funds, [31] and may have donated more than half of his personal income to charity. [32] Of his art collection, the two most notable purchases are Johannes Vermeer's Lady at the Virginals and a set of Canalettos, but it is as a collector of books that he is best remembered. [33] The King's Library was open and available to scholars and was the foundation of a new national library. [34]

In May 1762, the incumbent Whig government of Thomas Pelham-Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle, was replaced with one led by the Scottish Tory Lord Bute. Bute's opponents worked against him by spreading the calumny that he was having an affair with the King's mother, and by exploiting anti-Scottish prejudices amongst the English. [35] John Wilkes, a member of parliament, published The North Briton, which was both inflammatory and defamatory in its condemnation of Bute and the government. Wilkes was eventually arrested for seditious libel but he fled to France to escape punishment he was expelled from the House of Commons, and found guilty in absentia of blasphemy and libel. [36] In 1763, after concluding the Peace of Paris which ended the war, Lord Bute resigned, allowing the Whigs under George Grenville to return to power.

Later that year, the Royal Proclamation of 1763 placed a limit upon the westward expansion of the American colonies. The Proclamation aimed to divert colonial expansion to the north (to Nova Scotia) and to the south (Florida). The Proclamation Line did not bother the majority of settled farmers, but it was unpopular with a vocal minority and ultimately contributed to conflict between the colonists and the British government. [37] With the American colonists generally unburdened by British taxes, the government thought it appropriate for them to pay towards the defence of the colonies against native uprisings and the possibility of French incursions. [F]

The central issue for the colonists was not the amount of taxes but whether Parliament could levy a tax without American approval, for there were no American seats in Parliament. [40] The Americans protested that like all Englishmen they had rights to "no taxation without representation". In 1765, Grenville introduced the Stamp Act, which levied a stamp duty on every document in the British colonies in North America. Since newspapers were printed on stamped paper, those most affected by the introduction of the duty were the most effective at producing propaganda opposing the tax. [41]

Meanwhile, the King had become exasperated at Grenville's attempts to reduce the King's prerogatives, and tried, unsuccessfully, to persuade William Pitt the Elder to accept the office of Prime Minister. [42] After a brief illness, which may have presaged his illnesses to come, George settled on Lord Rockingham to form a ministry, and dismissed Grenville. [43]

Lord Rockingham, with the support of Pitt and the King, repealed Grenville's unpopular Stamp Act, but his government was weak and he was replaced in 1766 by Pitt, whom George created Earl of Chatham. The actions of Lord Chatham and George III in repealing the Act were so popular in America that statues of them both were erected in New York City. [44] Lord Chatham fell ill in 1767, and Augustus FitzRoy, 3rd Duke of Grafton, took over the government, although he did not formally become Prime Minister until 1768. That year, John Wilkes returned to England, stood as a candidate in the general election, and came top of the poll in the Middlesex constituency. Wilkes was again expelled from Parliament. He was re-elected and expelled twice more, before the House of Commons resolved that his candidature was invalid and declared the runner-up as the victor. [45] Grafton's government disintegrated in 1770, allowing the Tories led by Lord North to return to power. [46]

George was deeply devout and spent hours in prayer, [47] but his piety was not shared by his brothers. George was appalled by what he saw as their loose morals. In 1770, his brother Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland and Strathearn, was exposed as an adulterer, and the following year Cumberland married a young widow, Anne Horton. The King considered her inappropriate as a royal bride: she was from a lower social class and German law barred any children of the couple from the Hanoverian succession. [48]

George insisted on a new law that essentially forbade members of the Royal Family from legally marrying without the consent of the Sovereign. The subsequent bill was unpopular in Parliament, including among George's own ministers, but passed as the Royal Marriages Act 1772. Shortly afterwards, another of George's brothers, Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh, revealed he had been secretly married to Maria, Countess Waldegrave, the illegitimate daughter of Sir Edward Walpole. The news confirmed George's opinion that he had been right to introduce the law: Maria was related to his political opponents. Neither lady was ever received at court. [48]

Lord North's government was chiefly concerned with discontent in America. To assuage American opinion most of the custom duties were withdrawn, except for the tea duty, which in George's words was "one tax to keep up the right [to levy taxes]". [49] In 1773, the tea ships moored in Boston Harbor were boarded by colonists and the tea was thrown overboard, an event that became known as the Boston Tea Party. In Britain, opinion hardened against the colonists, with Chatham now agreeing with North that the destruction of the tea was "certainly criminal". [50]

With the clear support of Parliament, Lord North introduced measures, which were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists: the Port of Boston was shut down and the charter of Massachusetts was altered so that the upper house of the legislature was appointed by the Crown instead of elected by the lower house. [51] Up to this point, in the words of Professor Peter Thomas, George's "hopes were centred on a political solution, and he always bowed to his cabinet's opinions even when sceptical of their success. The detailed evidence of the years from 1763 to 1775 tends to exonerate George III from any real responsibility for the American Revolution." [52] Though the Americans characterised George as a tyrant, in these years he acted as a constitutional monarch supporting the initiatives of his ministers. [53]

The American War of Independence was the culmination of the civil and political American Revolution resulting from the American Enlightenment. Brought to a head over the lack of American representation in Parliament, which was seen as a denial of their rights as Englishmen and often popularly focused on direct taxes levied by Parliament on the colonies without their consent, the colonists resisted the imposition of direct rule after the Boston Tea Party. Creating self-governing provinces, they circumvented the British ruling apparatus in each colony by 1774. Armed conflict between British regulars and colonial militiamen broke out at the Battles of Lexington and Concord in April 1775. After petitions to the Crown for intervention with Parliament were ignored, the rebel leaders were declared traitors by the Crown and a year of fighting ensued. The colonies declared their independence in July 1776, listing twenty-seven grievances against the British king and legislature while asking the support of the populace. Among George's other offences, the Declaration charged, "He has abdicated Government here . He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people." The gilded equestrian statue of George III in New York was pulled down. [54] The British captured the city in 1776 but lost Boston, and the grand strategic plan of invading from Canada and cutting off New England failed with the surrender of British Lieutenant-General John Burgoyne following the battles of Saratoga. [55]

George III is often accused of obstinately trying to keep Great Britain at war with the revolutionaries in America, despite the opinions of his own ministers. [56] In the words of the British historian George Otto Trevelyan, the King was determined "never to acknowledge the independence of the Americans, and to punish their contumacy by the indefinite prolongation of a war which promised to be eternal." [57] The King wanted to "keep the rebels harassed, anxious, and poor, until the day when, by a natural and inevitable process, discontent and disappointment were converted into penitence and remorse". [58] Later historians defend George by saying in the context of the times no king would willingly surrender such a large territory, [9] [59] and his conduct was far less ruthless than contemporary monarchs in Europe. [60] After Saratoga, both Parliament and the British people were in favour of the war recruitment ran at high levels and although political opponents were vocal, they remained a small minority. [9] [61] With the setbacks in America, Prime Minister Lord North asked to transfer power to Lord Chatham, whom he thought more capable, but George refused to do so he suggested instead that Chatham serve as a subordinate minister in North's administration, but Chatham refused to co-operate. He died later in the same year. [62] In early 1778, France (Britain's chief rival) signed a treaty of alliance with the United States and the conflict escalated. The United States and France were soon joined by Spain and the Dutch Republic, while Britain had no major allies of its own. Lord Gower and Lord Weymouth both resigned from the government. Lord North again requested that he also be allowed to resign, but he stayed in office at George III's insistence. [63] Opposition to the costly war was increasing, and in June 1780 contributed to disturbances in London known as the Gordon riots. [64]

As late as the siege of Charleston in 1780, Loyalists could still believe in their eventual victory, as British troops inflicted heavy defeats on the Continental forces at the Battle of Camden and the Battle of Guilford Court House. [65] In late 1781, the news of Lord Cornwallis's surrender at the siege of Yorktown reached London Lord North's parliamentary support ebbed away and he resigned the following year. The King drafted an abdication notice, which was never delivered, [59] [66] finally accepted the defeat in North America, and authorised peace negotiations. The Treaties of Paris, by which Britain recognised the independence of the American states and returned Florida to Spain, were signed in 1782 and 1783. [67] When John Adams was appointed American Minister to London in 1785, George had become resigned to the new relationship between his country and the former colonies. He told Adams, "I was the last to consent to the separation but the separation having been made and having become inevitable, I have always said, as I say now, that I would be the first to meet the friendship of the United States as an independent power." [68]

With the collapse of Lord North's ministry in 1782, the Whig Lord Rockingham became Prime Minister for the second time but died within months. The King then appointed Lord Shelburne to replace him. Charles James Fox, however, refused to serve under Shelburne, and demanded the appointment of William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland. In 1783, the House of Commons forced Shelburne from office and his government was replaced by the Fox–North Coalition. Portland became Prime Minister, with Fox and Lord North, as Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary respectively. [9]

The King disliked Fox intensely, for his politics as well as his character he thought Fox was unprincipled and a bad influence on the Prince of Wales. [69] George III was distressed at having to appoint ministers not of his liking, but the Portland ministry quickly built up a majority in the House of Commons, and could not be displaced easily. He was further dismayed when the government introduced the India Bill, which proposed to reform the government of India by transferring political power from the East India Company to Parliamentary commissioners. [70] Although the King actually favoured greater control over the company, the proposed commissioners were all political allies of Fox. [71] Immediately after the House of Commons passed it, George authorised Lord Temple to inform the House of Lords that he would regard any peer who voted for the bill as his enemy. The bill was rejected by the Lords three days later, the Portland ministry was dismissed, and William Pitt the Younger was appointed Prime Minister, with Temple as his Secretary of State. On 17 December 1783, Parliament voted in favour of a motion condemning the influence of the monarch in parliamentary voting as a "high crime" and Temple was forced to resign. Temple's departure destabilised the government, and three months later the government lost its majority and Parliament was dissolved the subsequent election gave Pitt a firm mandate. [9]


Conclusione

The passage of the Townshend Acts and the colonial response to them demonstrated the depth of difference that existed between the Crown, Parliament, and their colonial subjects.

And furthermore, it showed that the issue wasn’t just about the taxes. It was about the status of the colonists in the eyes of the British, which saw them more as disposable hands working for a corporation rather than citizens of their empire.

This difference in opinion pulled the two sides apart, first in the form of protests that damaged private property (like during the Boston Tea Party, for example, where rebellious colonists threw a literal fortune’s worth of tea into the ocean) then through provoked violence, and later as an all-out war.

After the Townshend Duties, the Crown and Parliament would continue to attempt to exert more control over the colonies, but this just led to more and more rebellion, creating the conditions needed for the colonists to declare independence and initiate the American Revolution.


These results included:

A Plan of Union of Great Britain and the Colonies

Initially, Joseph Galloway proposed a plan of union with Britain that offered a form of peaceful reconciliation. Galloway proposed that the colonies create a form of government to act in conjunction with that of the British, with a colonial parliament and leaders elected by Britain. This would offer the colonists their own representation while remaining loyal to England. This plan was ultimately rejected when the Suffolk Resolves were presented, a much more drastic proposal.

The Suffolk Resolves

Proposed on September 9th, 1774, by Dr. Joseph Warren and accepted by Congress on September 17th, this plan encouraged Massachusetts to protest the Intolerable Acts by stockpiling military supplies, operating an independent government, boycotting British goods, and announcing no allegiance to Britain and a king who failed to consider the wishes of the colonists.

Reaction to these Resolves was mixed. While some supported such a bold proposal and felt it was an appropriate reaction to the British, others feared it would cause war. In truth, war was already imminent because of the differing definitions of liberty offered by the Patriots and the British. These tensions would be brought to the forefront later in the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

Declaration of Rights

For those members of the Congress who were in favor of a more peaceful protest, the Declaration of Rights was developed. These rights included life, liberty, property, and the right to establish their own taxes within the colonies. It also outlined reasons for a rebellion, including the Boston Port Act, Quebec Act, an oppressive presence of royal governors in the colonies, and unjust taxation without representation in government.

The final draft was accepted on October 14th, 1774, and constituted a formal declaration to King George III and the Parliament that the actions of the British must cease or else a revolution would result.

Continental Association

On December 1, 1774, the Continental Association was created to boycott all contact with British goods. By reversing the economic sanctions placed on the colonists, the delegates hoped Britain would repeal its Intolerable Acts. While this was quite a sacrifice to make, the Patriots were willing to do so in the name of liberty and justice for the colonies.

Tensions Continued to Rise

Following these proposals, the First Continental Congress adjourned on October 22nd, 1774, after fifty-one days of deliberation and tactical planning. In the event that the Intolerable Acts were not lifted, the Congress decided to meet again. While Parliament debated its next course of action in response to the persistent acts of the colonists, tensions continued to rise between the Loyalists, Patriots, royal governors, British soldiers, and various other factions of people present in the colonies. These intense emotions were preparing to surface and culminate in “the shot heard round the world,” a direct act of war between the colonies and the British. Following debate in the Parliament, the British passed the Restraining Act on March 30th, 1775, which only succeeded in further frustrating and infuriating the colonists. The New England colonies were prevented from trading with anyone except the British and fishing was forbidden in New England waters, cutting off a critical fishing ground and food source for the Patriots.

Colonial Raids: Britain Attempts to Quell the Rebellious Colonists

Following the aftermath of the Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress, rumors began to circulate that war was imminent. The Second Continental Congress was preparing to meet in May since the Intolerable Acts had not been remedied or retracted. While most colonies felt a great deal of distrust towards Britain, Boston had perhaps the strongest anti-British feelings. These sentiments concerned General Thomas Gage as he pondered ways to remedy the situation and reassure those in Britain that the colonies were secure. One such way was to conduct routine raids on colonial military supplies.

The British Continue to Concord

Now alerted of a fairly organized colonial militia’s presence, the British forces continued on to Concord with caution. When they reached Concord, grenadiers began searching for supplies while the light infantry acted as guards in the event of open fire. Open fire was soon to come. After the Patriots had time to rouse more minutemen, a surprisingly large number gathered to fight the British. At the North Bridge, an unexpected shot was fired from a British soldier. Colonial commander Major Buttrick yelled, “fire!” in response and a fight began. Approximately 400 minutemen fought 700 British soldiers. Although the numbers were still in favor of the British forces, the minutemen successfully forced a British retreat back to Boston. During this retreat, minutemen (many of whom were snipers and could pick off British soldiers from hidden locations) repeatedly besieged the British troops until the Earl of Percy arrived with his British reinforcements and offered shelter to Smith and Pitcairn’s battered forces.


Marsh Tavern

In July 1777 Vermont’s Col. William Marsh made a difficult decision. When the American Revolution broke out, Marsh had joined forces with the Green Mountain Boys. But he decided to switch sides and support the Loyalist cause.

Marsh came to Vermont from Connecticut via New York and settled in Manchester around 1765.

When war broke out he joined the Green Mountain Boys with the rank of colonel. But by 1777 he had grown uneasy by the way the Patriots harassed Loyalist Vermonters, and that prompted him to join forces with British General John Burgoyne.

Following Burgoyne’s defeat in Saratoga, the American military let Marsh return to visit family in Dorset, Vt. before his exile to Canada. During the war he acted as a diplomatic adviser and spy handler for the British. He actively lobbied to have Vermont switch sides and join with Britain.

The Vermont government confiscated and sold Marsh’s Manchester property. Marsh always retained hope that he could recover some of his property, but it did not happen. His name lives on, however, at the Equinox Golf Resort and Spa in Manchester where visitors can dine in the historic Marsh Tavern.



Commenti:

  1. Sanris

    Penso che questo sia un argomento molto interessante. Ti suggerisco di discuterne qui o in PM.

  2. Mordrayans

    Anuka!

  3. Shraga

    Non mi piace.

  4. Cassian

    Questo ottimo pensiero, a proposito, cade



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